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THE BEST TIME OF YEAR TO PLANT YOUR GARDEN FLOWERS.
The best planned gardens are those which offer interest all year round, whether in flowers, foliage or berries.Not sure what to plant when? Here’s our guide to give you color in every season.
Early winter is a great time for planting bare-root roses and other dormant shrubs before the ground becomes too hard or waterlogged. They should give you plenty of color in the warmer months. Meanwhile, winter is the peak season for brightly berried hollies, delicate-looking hellebores, shrubby honeysuckles, fragrant yellow evergreen mahonias and wintersweet, whose pale yellow flowers hang from bare stems from December to March and which gives the more popular witch hazel a run for its money. For scent, look no further than Viburnum x bodnantense and, if you’re after unusual berries, check out the purple fruits of Callicarpa bodinieri var. giraldii ‘Profusion’, which can last until December. In January, see the first of the bulbs emerge, including snowdrops, crocuses and early daffodils such as Narcissus ‘February Gold’. Unlike other spring-flowering bulbs, tulips can be delayed from planting until November and December, if the ground isn’t too hard or waterlogged. Winter pansies and violas which gave some colour in tubs and troughs in the autumn may sulk during the depths of winter, but they’ll spring back to life when the days become longer in spring. Late winter is also a great time to sow seed in a heated greenhouse or on a windowsill, such as tuberous begonias, busy Lizzies and sweet peas.
If you want swathes of daffodils, crocus, alliums and snowdrops, autumn is the best time to plant spring-flowering bulbs. Crocus and narcissi can be planted at any point until early December, tulips should be left until late autumn, while snowdrops and other small bulbs are best planted immediately after purchase. As a rule, plant bulbs at three times their depth below the surface of the soil or compost. If you have planted an area of flowering prairie, it should be approaching its pinnacle in September, while shrubs which were planted in spring including buddleia davidii, hydrangea, escallonia and Ceanothus ‘Autumnal Blue’ offer further colour. Replace summer bedding as it comes to an end with plants for winter and spring, and plant winter bedding and spring bulbs in containers this season. Autumn is also a time when brilliant leaf colour comes into its own, whether you have stunning Japanese maples (acers) in pots or borders, katsura trees, which turn through every shade of yellow, pink, orange and red as the season progresses. Berries also appear in shades of orange, yellow, red and black, on stalwart shrubs such as pyracanthas, cotoneasters, sorbus and Rosa rugosa. Autumn is also a great time for planting container-grown trees, shrubs, climbers and roses, while the ground is still warm and workable, while in late autumn you can begin to plant bare-root plants, provided the leaves have fallen off and the plants are dormant.
We have an annual selection of flower seeds available from the VATICAN GARDENS RANGE please log onto http://vaticangardens.org/seeds/
They come in a presentation box of five different flower seeds and make an ideal gift to that special person for a lasting memory every year.
THE VATICAN CITY AND ITS HISTORY.
The Vatican City is the smallest independent state in the world it is an enclave tucked away inside Rome with just 110 acres in area and fewer than 1,000 residents. But it draws more than six million visitors each year to the monumental St. Peter’s Square the magnificent Vatican museums and at its heart one of the holiest sites in the world, Saint Peter’s Basilica.
The site of St. Peter’s Basilica, St. Peter’s Square is all centered around the tomb of St. Peter which is found about145 meters under that golden globe on the top of Michelangelo’s dome.
Built on the site where Peter, the apostle and first pope was crucified upside down and martyred along with other early Christians by the Roman Emperor Nero in 64 A.D.
The Basilica is a marvel. It was started in 1506 and is the work of 12 architects and a multitde of Renaissance masters serving 20 popes over the course of 120 years.
The dome of St. Peter’s is the crowning glory in the life of artist Michelangelo Buonarotti. Towards the front of the basilica a much younger Michelangelo’s work sculpted from a single piece of marble, the Pietà. Pietà is the Latin and the Italian word for compassion, for mercy, for tenderness, a word particularly poignant for our present pope.
Only a few years later Michelangelo would paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel where cardinals meet to elect a new pope and just one of the treasures of the Vatican museums. The decision in 1780 to open those museums to the general public regardless of religion was revolutionary.
Today the Vatican Museums have a great history of openness and comprise of one of the largest collections in the world, three and a half miles of museum and the first of its magnitude to have a woman as director, Barbara Jatta.
PLANNING ON VISITING THE VATICAN MUSEUMS?
Although the walls of the Sistine Chapel are covered with paintings by a number of Renaissance masters, including Botticelli and Ghirlandaio, they become secondary in the company of Michelangelo's extraordinary fresco covering the great vaulted ceiling.
The admission ticket permits the tourist to visit the Vatican Museums and the Sistine Chapel and is valid for the day of issue.
At this time there is a whole army of touts selling to the queue the attraction of a guided tour that will allow you to by-pass the queue ahead.
With a bit of planning ahead you too can avoid the queues by paying for a fast track ticket or booking a tour that includes fast track, skip the queue entry to the Vatican Museums.
You can get the traditional audio guides for a fee on entering the Vatican Museum at the information desk. There are over 400 audio stops available throughout the Vatican Museums. The audio guides are available in 10 languages (Italian, English, French, German, Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Russian and Portuguese).
It is obligatory to deposit in the cloakroom suitcases, backpacks and containers with dimensions larger than cm 40 x 35 x 15. or any articles that 'stick out'.
After taking in the Vatican Museums, you will walk over to St Peter's Basilica for a fascinating finish to your group guided walking tour stopping to admire magnificent St Peter's Square.
What is “the Vatican” and how does it work?
Most Catholics are partially ignorant about what “the Vatican” is and how it works. The Vatican City State is a sovereign nation but it is also the collection of dicasteries that oversee legal cases, liturgy, money, abuse, doctrine, religious orders, appointment of bishops and basically all the newsworthy and controversial elements of Catholicism.
Over the last couple years I’ve been able to spend time in Rome and even some time with priests, bishops, and cardinals working within the Vatican. What was once a knotted mystery has become more clear to me and I wanted to share a basic outline so that you can also better understand how the Vatican works:
Understanding the Roman Curia as Dicasteries:
“The Vatican” is literally the geographic location of Saint Peter’s burial at the foot of the “Vatican Hill” outside the ancient boundaries of the city of Rome But a more accurate term for what most people mean by “the Vatican” is the “Roman Curia,” which is a collection of “dicasteries” or departments working for and under the Pope.
The word dicastery comes from the Greek word δικαστήριον meaning “place of justice.”
The Church is not a nation, but to use an analogy, you might think of the heads of each “dicasteries” as the “cabinent” of the United States President. I know, I know. It breaks down. You don’t need to leave a comment to me about how the Pope is not like a President. I’m only making an analogy.
So the Pope appoints leaders or prefects (usually cardinals) to each of the dicasteries to aid His Holiness in the governance of the Church:
List of the Vatican Dicasteries:
Here are the Vatican dicasteries organized into their six various species:
The Secretariat of State (most powerful dicastery – headed by Cardinal Secretary of State)
The Secretariat for the Economy (created by Pope Francis to oversee financials)
The Secretariat for Communications (Vatican Radio, Osservatore Romano, Vatican Press, etc.)
The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (one might say this is the second most powerful dicastery, after the Secretary of State)
The Congregation for the Eastern Churches
The Congregation for Divine Worship (liturgy and sacraments)
The Congregation for the Causes of Saints (the process of canonizing saints)
The Congregation for Bishops (researches and selects bishops for dioceses)
The Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples (formerly named Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith)
The Congregation for the Clergy (priests, deacons, seminaries)
The Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life (religious life)
The Congregation for Catholic Education (Catholic universities, but not seminaries)
The Dicastery for the Laity, Family and Life (created by Pope Francis)
The Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development (created by Pope Francis)
Legal Tribunals (operate like courts):
The Apostolic Penitentiary (excommunications, dispensations, indulgences)
The Tribunal of the Roman Rota (highest appellate tribunal; usually handles contested marriage annulments)
The Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura (Supreme court seeing appealed cases from Roman Rota and conflicts between Congregations)
The Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity (handles ecumenical relations with non-Catholic Christians, and notably Jewish relations)
The Pontifical Council for the Interpretation of Legislative Texts (interpreting canon law)
The Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue (handles relations with non-Christian religions)
The Pontifical Council for Culture
The Pontifical Council for Promoting the New Evangelization (for re-evangelizing the West)
Offices of the Holy See:
The Apostolic Camera (the Papal Treasury)
The Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See (modified by Pope Francis; see Secretariat for the Economy above; oversees property of the Holy See)
The Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See (oversees finances)
*Note: The tendency of Pope Francis has been to close and collapse “Pontifical Councils” into what he calls “Dicasteries.” Pope Francis has closed down four “Pontifical Councils” and erected two new “Dicasteries” listed above.
My opinion is that a reduction in the number of dicasteries is a positive reform of the Church.
Each dicastery works at the pleasure of the Holy Father. The Pope appoints all offices and he can close and open new dicasteries according to his pleasure.
Other Departments in the Vatican
You also have other departments in the Vatican that are not technically dicasteries such as:
The Pontifical Swiss Guard
Approximately 130 soldiers that where colorful uniforms while protecting the Pope and providing border security for Vatican City and
the Swiss Guard makes use of the Glock 19 pistol and Heckler & Koch MP7 .
The Vatican Bank (Official Name is: Institute for the Works of Religion
The Pontifical Commissions (3 of which fall under the CDF):
Pontifical Commission for the Cultural Heritage of the Church (art, books, archives)
Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei
Oversees 1962 Extraordinary Form of Mass.
Answers to and is located within CDF.
Pontifical Commission for Sacred Archaeology
Pontifical Biblical Commission (publishes articles on biblical studies; answers to CDF)
International Theological Commission (publishes theological articles; answers to CDF)
Pontifical Commission for Latin America (answers to Congregation for Bishops)
Pontifical Commission for the Protection of Minors (instituted by Pope Francis in 2014; headed by Cardinal O’Malley of Boston)
Temporary or Interdicasterial Commissions (temporary commissions for tasks, such as producing a Catechism of the Catholic Church)
How to Be Better Educated about the Catholic Church:
As the Church faces new issues, new dicasteries are created and some are closed. There is nothing of divine right with the Roman Curia. The Pope can open and close dicasteries to help him govern the Church. Technically speaking, he could close all the offices.
It’s worth following the current issues in the Catholic Church and having an understanding of how these issues flow into and out of the “Vatican” through the various dicasteries.
It’s also worth printing out on a piece of paper the dicasteries of the Catholic Church.
Print them out and place them in your Bible so that you can pray for their leaders and for their work. It’s worth following which Cardinals head which dicasteries.
Here are the current leaders/prefects of some of the important dicasteries:
The Secretariat of State: Italian Cardinal Pietro Parolin
The Secretariat for the Economy: Australian Cardinal George Pell
The Secretariat for Communications: Monsignor Dario Edoardo Viganò
The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith: German Cardinal Gerhard Ludwig Müller
The Congregation for the Eastern Churches: Cardinal Leonardo Sandri
The Congregation for Divine Worship: Guinean Cardinal Robert Sarah
The Congregation for the Causes of Saints: Italian Cardinal Angelo Amato
The Congregation for Bishops: Canadian Cardinal Marc Ouellet
The Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples: Italian Cardinal Fernando Filoni
The Congregation for the Clergy: Italian Cardinal Beniamino Stella
The Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life: Brazilian Cardinal João Braz de Aviz
The Congregation for Catholic Education: Italian Cardinal Giuseppe Versaldi
The Dicastery for the Laity, Family and Life: American Cardinal Kevin Farrell
The Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development: Ghanaian Cardinal Peter Turkson
All the Cardinals that lead dicasteries are usually seen as papabile – unspoken candidates for the next papacy.
Holy Apostles, pray for the Cardinals.
VATICAN CITY AND GARDENS ARE A UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE SITE
The Vatican City and Gardens is one of the most sacred places in Christendom. A unique collection of artistic and architectural masterpieces lie within the boundaries of this small state. At its centre is St Peter's Basilica with its double colonnade and a circular piazza in front and bordered by palaces and the world renowned gardens. The basilica which was erected over the tomb of St Peter the Apostle, is the largest religious building in the world and the fruit of the combined genius of Bramante, Raphael, Michelangelo, Bernini and Maderno.
VISITS TO THE VATICAN GARDENS:The Vatican Gardens can be visited only through guided tours organized by the Guided Tours Office of the Vatican Museums. Tours depart from the Vatican Museums. Entrance to the Gardens is denied to persons not properly dressed. For information: telephone +39.06.69884676 (individuals) or +39.06.69883145 (groups). Bookings can be arranged by faxing +39.06.69885100
VISITS TO THE VATICAN MUSEUMS: The Vatican Museums are open weekdays from 10:00 to 13:45 during November - February (except during the Christmas period when they are open from 8:45 to 16:45). During March - October the Museums are open Monday - Friday from 10:00 to 16:45 and Saturdays from 10:00 to 14:45. On the last Sunday of each month the Museums can be visited free of admission charge from 9:00 to 13:45. Entrance to the Museums is not possible from 75 minutes before closing time. For information: telephone +39.06.69883860 fax +39.06.69885433PAPAL AUDIENCES: A ticket - always free of charge - is required for attending the General Audience on Wednesday mornings or other papal ceremonies. They are issued by the Prefecture of the Papal Household reached by way of the Bronze Door. The office is open Mondays from 9:00 to 13:00 and Tuesdays from 9:00 to 18:00. To request a ticket telephone +39.06.69883114 – +39.06.69884631; or fax +39.06.69885863.
ST. PETER’S BASILICA. The Basilica is open every day from 7.00 to 19.00, April to September and from 7.00 to 18.00, October to March. To preserve the sacred character of the church, groups consisting of more than five members and accompanied by a guide and are kindly requested to use "audio-guides" which can be rented at the entrance to the Basilica. Proper dress is required for admission to the Basilica.
HISTORICAL AND ARTISTIC MUSEUM (Treasury). The Treasury is open from 9.00 to 18:15, April to September and from 9.00 to 17.15, October to March. The entrance is from inside St. Peter’s Basilica.
VISIT TO THE DOME. Visits to the dome of St. Peter’s are possible every day from 8.00 to 18.00, April to September and from 8.00 to 17.00, October to March. The entrance is at the portico of the Basilica. There are 320 steps to the top of the dome and it is an incredibly wonderful experience but also breathtaking! Anyone with heart ailments, breathing problems or anything else that might be a serious impediment to scaling that height is forewarned before taking even one step. You can’t go a quarter of the way, for example, and decide it is too much and turn around. It is all or nothing! And the staircase is the width of only a single person..
VATICAN GROTTOES. The Vatican Grottoes are open every day from 7.00 to 18.00, April to September and from 7.00 to 17.00, October to March. The entrance is at the transept of St. Peter’s Basilica.
VISIT TO THE TOMB OF ST. PETER AND THE PRE-CONSTANTINIAN NECROPOLIS. For visits to the tomb of St. Peter and the necropolis please contact the Ufficio Scavi (excavations office): tel. + 39.06 69 88 53 18; fax + 39.06 698 73017; e-mail: email@example.com . The office is open from 9.00 to 17.00, Monday to Friday and reached by way of the Arch of the Bells.